X. При переводе следующих предложений обратите внимание на характер передачи на русский язык неличных форм глагола. Определите вид конструкции с неличными формами глагола.
1. I was anxious to get him to continue. 2. For a second, obscurely, he found himself envying Randall. 3. Penn found himself wondering if it wouldn’t be a good plan, if it would not perhaps further his cause, if he were to give Miranda a hard slap one of these days. 4. She was even more surprised to find herself invigorated by, positively enjoying, the atmosphere of relaxed drama which surrounded Emma. 5, I tried to get him to talk, but he kept looking at me in a funny sort of way. 6. A tremor of sheer horror passed over Andrew at the thought of his beautiful career suddenly cut short, ruined. 7. I’m sure Miss Dolly would be pleased to have you join us. 8. She sat wondering however she’d come to marry a bloody fool who got himself sent to jail. 9. I can’t have you faint in the street. 10. I hope it doesn’t upset you my coming like this. 11. It was like having a government inspector in the house. 12. People sometimes accused her of asking husbands more often than wives, but she defended herself by saying that she couldn’t possibly help it because more men were husbands than women were wives. 13. Part of his time in London had doubtless been devoted, unsuccessfully, to getting one of these plays put on. 14. She wasn’t a girl to show much emotion. 15. There are still many fundamental problems to be solved in this area. 16. He took it from his pocket and held it out for us to see. 17. We must know our position to defend it. 18. Am I an idiot to want such a thing? 19. Riley beckoned for me to come with him. 20. Catherine, snoring with abandon, did not hear us go. 21. I don’t know that it was funny, but I laughed to keep him company. 22. I stood watching Riley unconcernedly propel himself to and fro between the banks. 23. Most people don’t believe it when I tell about catching a cat-fish barehanded. 24. I heard Catherine scream: roar, rather. 25. She regretted not having visited there before. 26. He thought he’d failed us in not preventing what had happened to Catherine. 27. Still she behaved as though she hadn’t expected to be kissed good night. 28. He got the impression that he was being edged out of their conversation, as though he were a child who was expected to sit still and not interrupt while his elders talked of things over his head. 29. After all, he had a car that was supposed to have cost three thousand dollars. 30. But it was too early for anyone much to be about. 31. I want you to tell her what I said: go home. 32. She confessed to having invited some boys over to listen to the radio and dance. 33. I’ll thank you to leave us. 34. Only don’t count on me to lift a finger. 35. He couldn’t get Dolly to root for any team. 36. The Judge presented himself at the garden gate and whistled for me to let him in. 37. I want you to behave, Rusty. 38. He was not going to have his son made a bloody snob of. 39. With this there came back to her that sensation of being encompassed and plotted against with which she had first met the news of Emma’s coming. 40. Now I won’t have you saying things I don’t understand. 41. I don’t expect sailors to be saints. 42. Fancy you being there! 43. They showed films and gave medical and legal advice, not only explaining women’s new legal rights, but also working hard to get women to exercise them. 44. He had to ask his way three times; on each occasion he repeated the directions given him, got the man to repeat them, then repeated them a second time.
XI. Обратите внимание на перевод глаголов to continue, to allow, to forbid в следующих предложениях.
1. No matter how competent McDermott might be, it was unlikely that he would continue under a new regime. 2. She continued bright through the day. 3. If we’re to continue our separate ways, at least we should remain friends. 4. Some, both men and women, were sitting forward in their chairs, striving not to miss any words as he paused as aircraft continued overhead. 5. Miranda had so far continued firmly in the faith of her mother. 6. After his noisy argumentative affectionate family it seemed to him scarcely credible that two married people could continue on such terms, being so cold and mysterious to each other and so silent. 7. Hugh must not be allowed his crime. 8. Witnesses are not allowed in the court-room to hear testimony preceding theirs. 9. There should be a law against that truck. A broken-down pile like that, it oughtn’t to be allowed. 10. Marie had emphatically forbidden any more cigars in bed. 11. You’re not allowed on the bridge unless you have the captain’s invitation. 12. But he was allowed no more time for reflection.
Усложнения и «излишества»
С тенденцией к краткости и компактности высказывания в английском языке борется тенденция к точному обозначению пространственных и временных указателей. В подобных случаях при переводе на русский язык некоторая избыточность английского предложения устраняется: иногда опускаются лишние с точки зрения русского языка элементы. Например:
We’ll do this later in the day. Мы сделаем это попозже.
I’ve had pains here – just below where my heart is. У меня вот здесь боли – как раз под сердцем.
The wonder is that it’s lasted as long as it has. (вместо so long) Удивительно, что это продолжалось так долго.
It was not entirely without vegetation, but such vegetation as there was only added to the desolation of the place. Там была кое-какая растительность, но настолько скудная, что она еще более подчеркивала пустынность этой местности.
Не inspected Manson with a jaundiced eye and his voice, when it came, was reluctant. Он внимательно смотрел на Мэнсона своими желтушными глазами, потом нехотя заговорил.
Lantenengo Street had a sort of cottony silence to it. На улице Лантененго всегда стояла какая-то ватная тишина.
Не had a few books to read in his bag. В портфеле у него было несколько книжек.
Иногда слово thing, утратившее свое прямое значение «вещь», употребляясь в сочетании с прилагательным, также оказывается избыточным с точки зрения русского языка. Например:
Is it a good thing for children to sit in front of a television set all evening? Полезно ли детям весь вечер просиживать перед телевизором?
Главные или придаточные предложения с there (оборот there is) в составе сложноподчиненного предложения также представляются нам иногда избыточными, усложняющими высказывание. Например:
I hear there are some new people who’ve come to live next door to you. (= I hear some new people have come to live next door to you.) Я слышал, что рядом с вами поселились какие-то новые жильцы.
Please write and let us know if there’s anything else you’d like to know. (=… if you’d like to know anything else.) Пожалуйста, напишите нам, что еще вам хотелось бы знать.Упражнения
I. Переведите следующие предложения и укажите на те элементы в английском предложении, которые являются избыточными или усложняющими высказывание с точки зрения русского языка.
1. His voice, when it came, was politely ironic. 2. «Will you have one, Miss Reid?» «I don’t mind if I do.» 3. Everybody here is very kind to me, but there are times when I think of home and am rather sad. 4. The sun shone for several hours during the early part of the day. 5. It was like an ordinary revolver except that it had hardly any barrel to it. 6. It’s a good thing we haven’t all the same likes and dislikes.7. That’s something very few men do in our country. 8. Today there are very few horses working on the farms. 9. Lucky for me I got out when I did. 10. The patron, seeing that we were customers with money to spend, unceremoniously turned the couple out. 11. Perhaps it was as well as that the interruption occurred when it did. 12. The glass has water in it. 13. It’s a good thing to make a habit of looking up words in a dictionary. 14. She could hardly believe it has happened like it had. 15. As he ate the cottage pie that was his portion he felt Blodwen Page’s eye fastened on him. 16. There’ll be a large sum to be paid to the Collector of Taxes in January. 17. But I’ll tell you this: the unions have acted the way they have because they’ve a social conscience. 18. There are not many jobs to be had nowadays. 19. I’ll twist your neck for you. 20. It was still early in the month of June. 21. He gave us coffee to drink, sweet cakes to eat, and cheroots to smoke. 22. There are no jobs to be had. 23. Captain Flume was obsessed with the idea that Chief White Halfoat would slit his throat open for him from ear to ear. 24. They had no time to spend on training for the better jobs. 25. My poor friend, you’ve had too much to drink.
II. Переделайте следующие предложения, употребив оборот с вводящим there + придаточное предложение или причастный оборот.
1. You ought to know one or two things about this place. 2. Comparisons can always be made with worse times: even in danger and misery the pendulum swings. 3. Some sources argue that urgent measures must be taken. 4. But something else worries me. 5. Little glances were exchanged all over the room. 6. I must do some things. 7. Even his best friend, Anton, must remain in ignorance, for a reward might be offered for information.
См. Т. Р. Левицкая, А. М Фитерман. Проблемы перевода. М., «Международные отношения», 1976, с. 162.
Правда, глагол to mount (to mount a horse) – переходный, тогда как в русском языке садиться (верхом на лошадь) – непереходный; отсюда такого рода сочетания странно звучат для русского.
Как ты груб! (франц.)
См. Л. С. Бархударов, Д. А. Штелинг. Грамматика английского языка. Изд. 3-е, М., «Высшая школа», 1965, с. 300–301.
См. Т. Р. Левицкая, А. М. Фитерман. Глаголы адвербиального значения и их перевод на русский язык. «Тетради переводчика», № 2, М., «Международные отношения», 1964.
Примеры взяты с сокращениями из статьи Ю. Денисенко «О некоторых проблемах выбора слова в русско-английском переводе», «Тетради переводчика», № 8, М., «Международные отношения», 1971, с. 34–35.
См. Т. Р. Левицкая, А. М. Фитерман. Проблемы перевода, с. 40.
Сравните приведенные примеры со случаями вклинивания распространенного определения между существительным и артиклем.
to cross one’s heart поклясться («вот тебе крест!»)
Ср. с наречиями на -ly: financially в финансовом отношении, naturally occurring встречающиеся в природе и т. п.
Примеры взяты из «Большого англо-русского словаря» под ред. И. Р. Гальперина, М., «Сов. энциклопедия», 1972
название местечка (исп.)
= criminal record