Part I. ACCIDENCE
Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns.
Snow, sandstone, impossibility, widower, opinion, exclamation, passer-by, misunderstanding, inactivity, snowball, kingdom, anticyclone, mother-of-pearl, immobility, might, warmth, succession, ex-president, nurse, misdeed, wisdom, blackbird, attention, policeman, merry-go-round, girlhood, usefulness, fortune, friendship, statesman, brother-in-law, population, fellow-boarder, smelling-salt.
Exercise 2. Point out the nouns and define the class each belongs to.
1. Don't forget, Pettinger, Europe is still the heart of the world, and Germany the heart of Europe. (Heym)2. Pursuing his inquiries, Clennam found that the Gowan family were a very distant ramification of the Barnacles... (Dickens)3. His face was sick with pain and rage. (Maltz)4. He drank coffee, letting the warmth go through his cold, tired body. (This is America)5. But there is only one place I met with the brotherhood of man, and it was in the Communist Party. (This is America)6. The mysteries of storm and the rain and tide were revealed. (Galsworthy)7. Having set the tea, she stood by the table and said slowly: "Tea's ready, Father. I'm going to London." (Galsworthy)8. By this time, quite a small crowd had collected, and people were asking each other what was the matter. (Jerome i(. Jerome)9. There were several small losses: a spoon used for the baby's feeding, a pair of scissors. (Lessing)10. He was professor of physics. (London)11. A band of dark clouds lay across the sky, and underneath it was the last pale brilliance of the evening. (Murdoch)12. "I have some luggage," he said, "at the Brumblehurst Station," and he asked her how he could have it. (Wells)13. In the kitchen Bowen read the telegram aloud. (Amis)14. The crowd laughed and moved, pushing every way and everybody. (This is America)15. De Witt fished through his pockets, found his eyeglasses, carefully slipped them out of their case... (Heylri)16. A stone caught her heel. (Maltz)17. George suggested meat and fruit pies, cold meat, tomatoes, fruit and green stuff. (Jerome K. Jerome)18. The silvercoloured carpet felt wonderfully soft beneath his feet, the furniture was of a golden wood. (Galsworthy)19. The major seemed to be looking out at the sky... (Heytn)20. Winslow spoke with his usual caustic courtesy. (Snow)21. The bourgeoisie is cowardly. (London)22. The moon was shining through the tree stems when they sax again side by side on the log seat. (Galsworthy)23. "It's not Sunday, tomorrow," said Karg. (Heytn)24. He looked down at his audience. (Heyrri)25. His hair was grey and he was short and fat. (Hemingway)
Exercise 3. Give the plural oi the following nouns.
Face, portfolio, swine, house, tomato, hearth, mother-in-law, basis, clergyman, ox, cry, key, fox, downfall, looker-on, rock, bush, enemy, leaf, roof, genius, hero, bunch, sheep, ship, criterion, youth, journey, penknife, man-of-war, loss, datum, goose, deer, pie, Englishwoman, wolf, mouse, formula, bath, volcano, possibility, forget-me-not, foot, handkerchief, thief, crisis, stepdaughter, birth, echo, finger-tip, court martial, joy, mischief-maker, extremity, spy, lie.
Exercise 4. Use the appropriate form of the verb.
1. "There — money in my pocket," 1 said to the porter, (is, are) (Hemingway)2. I know my hair __ beautiful, everybody says so. (is, are) (Hardy)3. The works __ his country, his home, his reason for being, (was, were) (Heym)4. These white swine — not live, (does, do) (Sabatini)5. Means __ easily found, (was, were) (Thackeray)6....this watch __ a special favourite with Mr. Pickwick, having been carried about... for a greater number of years than we feel called upon to state, at present, (was, were) (Dickens)7. "Good," I said. "No one shall tell me again that fish — no sense with them." (has, have) (Llewellyn) 8. The deer __ ravaging the man's fields, (was, were) (Twain)9. Money __ so scarce that it could fairly be said not to exist at all. (was, were) (Dreiser)10. I was here before the gates __ opened, but I was afraid to come straight to you. (was, were) (Dickens)11. The papers __ dull, the news _ local and stale, and the war news __ all old. (was, were) (Hemingway)12. At Capracotta, he had told me, there __ trout in the stream below the town, (was, were) (Hemingway)13. The sugartongs __ too wide for one of her hands, and she had to use both in wielding them, (was, were) (Ch. Bronte)14. Her hair __ loose and half-falling, and she wore a nurse's dress, (was, were) (Hemingway)15. And the baggage __ apparatus and appliances, (contain, contains) (Wells)16. The china __ good, of a delicate pattern, (was, were) (Dreiser)17. The nurse's wages.: __ good... (was, were) (Collins)
Exercise 5. Explain the use of the genitive case.
1. For four months, since in the canteen she saw Jon's tired smile, he had been one long thought in her mind. (Galsworthy)2. Agnes was at her wit's-end. (Lindsay)3. Since his illness, however, he had reluctantly abandoned this attempt to get twentyfour hours’ work out of each day. (Murdoch)4....the Radicals' real supporters were the urban classes. (Galsworthy)5. To Elizabeth it seemed that the lines with which fear had falsely aged his face were smoothed away, and it was a boy's face which watched her with a boy's enthusiasm. (Greene)6. For his honor's sake Torn has got to commit suicide. (Saroyan) 7. They were to leave the house without an instant's delay and go at once to the river's edge and go aboard a steamer that would be waiting there for them. (Buck)8. And he lifted his strange lowering eyes to Derek's. (Galsworthy)9. I was encouraged when, after Roger had proposed the guest of honor's health, Lufkin got up to reply. (Snow)10. "Where are the children?" "I sent them to mother's." (Cronin)11. Philip heard a man's voice talking quickly, but soothingljr, over the phone. (/. Shaw)12. Presently Rex was on his two miles' walk to Offendene. (Eliot)13. That early morning he had already done a good two hours' work. (Galsworthy)14. Bowen sat on the veranda of Buckmaster's house. (Amis)15. Crime is the product of a country's social order. (Cronin)16. I spotted the bride's father's uncle's silk hat on the seat of a straight chair across the room. (Salinger)17. I spent Christmas at my aunt Emily's. (Braine) 18. We took some bread and cheese with us and got some goat's milk up there on the pasture. (Voynich)19. He was still thinking of next morning's papers. (Snow)20. Why, for God's sake, why must we go through all this hell? (Saroyan)21. A man stepped out from a tobacconist's and waved to them, and the car slid to the kerb and. stopped. (Greene)22. A woman's love is not worth anything until it has been cleaned of all romanticism. (Murdoch)23. Her skin was as dry as a child's with fever. (Greene)
Exercise 6. Put the noun in the genitive case. Explain the use of the genitive case.
1. Well, I'd rather be married to a saint that never saw my good looks than to a sinner who saw every other __. (woman) (Buck)2. The breakfast table at __ was usually a very pleasant one, and was always presided over by Bella. (Mr. Boffin) (Dickens)3. "I think __ friendships are much deeper than __," Mrs. Thompson said, (men, women) (Braine) 4. That night he had chosen a basement bar a __ throw from Scotland Yard... (stone) (Hansford Johnson)5. As he passed through the __ room he saw an evening paper spread out conspicuously on the desk of the __ nephew. (clerks, director) (Greene)6. But I suppose that need not prevent us from quarrelling to our __ content in future, (heart) (Voynich)7. With one cold glance could she send me back into childhood with all a lonely __ terrors and shames, (child) (Lindsay)8. I will even go farther, if you like, and admit, for __ sake and for __ sake, that the identity of Lady Glyde, as a living person, is a proved fact to Miss Hal combe "and yourself, (courtesy, argument) (Collins)9. He stopped to dinner that evening and much to — satisfaction made a favorable impression on her father. (Ruth) (London)10. He said to her: "Look at my brother __ property." (James) (Galsworthy)11. He had not been at __ for nearly two years. (Timothy) (Galsworthy)12. Benson... was listening among the __ representatives cocking his head on one side, (workers) (Lindsay)13. He had never thought that a mere __ hand could be sweetly soft, (woman) (London)14. But he was daunted the next moment by his own and __ insignificance. (Milly) (Greene)15. But by that time the bride was near the end of the first _ journey towards Florence, (day) (Dickens)16....he too wished she had remained at home, as did most of the __ families, (congressmen) (Stone)17. You need a good __ sleep, (night) (Shaw)18. Haven't you noticed that other __ bread-and-butter is always much nicer than your own? Robert is like that. He always prefers __ fireside, (people, somebody else) (Maugham)19. The __ wives were more expensively dressed than the Civil __, and in general more spectacular, (politicians, servants) (Snow)20. One evening, on the way to the __, I saw Irwing sitting on the steps of his house, (grocer) (Saroyan)21. I cannot be blamed for all my __ doings, (kin) (Lindsay)
Exercise 7. Translate into English, using a noun in the genitive case where possible.
1. Давид провел две недели в Ярмуте у мистера Пеготти. 2. Уезжая в Ярмут, мальчик ничего не знал о предполагаемом (intended) браке своей матери. 3. После путешествия, которое длилось несколько часов, Пеготти с Давидом прибыли в Ярмут. 4. Приближаясь к дому мистера Пеготти, Давид увидел детскую фигурку, стоявшую на пороге. 5. Дядя Хэма и Эмили усыновил их, когда они были детьми. 6. Пеготти с гордостью говорила о доброте своего брата. 7. Двухнедельное пребывание в Ярмуте доставило Давиду большое удовольствие. 8. В присутствии мужа миссис Копперфильд боялась приласкать своего сына. 9. После минутной нерешительности Давид подошел к миссис Копперфильд и поцеловал ее. 10. После смерти жены мистер Мердстон послал Давида в Лондон, где мальчик должен был работать в торговом доме (warehouse) Мердстона и Гринби.
THE USE OF ARTICLES
Exercise 1. Change the nouns into the plural. Use some (any) where necessary and make the other necessary changes.
1. A kitten likes to play. 2. A violet does not smell so sweet as a lily of the valley. 3. Have you bought an apple for your child? 4. Here is a letter to be posted. 5. He ate a spoonful of broth and a sandwich. 6. I must buy a postcard. 7. She did not bring me a magazine, she brought me a newspaper. 8. She made a step towards him. 9. In the bedroom a candle was burning. 10. Did she ever lend you a book?
Exercise 2. Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with class nouns.)
1. Not __ word was spoken in __ parlour. (Caldwelt) 2. __ room itself was filling up, so was __ staircase. (Snow)3. I think that __ man's life is worth saving, whoever it belongs to. (Shaw)4. Though __ earth was cold and wet, __ sky was clear and __ sun rose bright and beautiful. (Dickens)5. He made them provide not one car, but half __ dozen. (Snow)6.. __ compass was invented in ancient China. 7. Not __ word was spoken, not __ sound was made. (Dickens)8. __ sky outside __ window was already dark, __ secretaries had gone home, all was quiet. (Snow)9. Edward remained __ week at __ cottage. (Austen)10. I tell you, he's as brave as __ man can reasonably be. (Snow)11. After that they would meet, perhaps, two or three times __ year. (Galsworthy) 12. Dinny looked up at __ house; and suddenly saw __ face in __ window of __ dining-room. (Galsxnorthy) 13. You know I never cared for __ drama. 14. "It is not __ large house," I said. "We don't want __ large house." (Jerome K. Jercme) 15. He looks older than he is, as __ dark men often do. (Dickens)16. Roger looked at him and, without __. word, took out his wallet and gave him __ ten-shilling note. (Snow)17. As __ man sows, so shall he reap. 18. This morning __ tobacconist was at his door. (Bennett)19. It was Sunday afternoon, and __ sun, which had teen shining now for several hours, was beginning to warm __ earth. (Murdoch)20. I have __ long story to tell you. Come and sit down on __ sofa and let us have __ comfortable chat. (Marryat)21. __ arm in __ arm, they walked toward home. (/. Shaw)22. It was __ cottage built like __ mansion, having __ central hall with __ wooden gallery running round it, and __ rooms no bigger than __ closets. (Hardy)23. And what __ beautiful moth there is over there on-----wall. (Murdoch)24. She had __ key of her own. (Conan Doyle)25. He was __ short, plump man with __ very white face and __ very white hands. It was rumoured in London that he powdered them like __ woman. (Greene)26. __ old couldn't help __ young... (Galsworthy)27. To him she would always be __ loveliest woman in __ world. (Maugham)28. __ strongest have their hours of depression. (Dreiser)29. Her aunt, in __ straw hat so broad that it covered her to __ very edges of her shoulders, was standing below with two gardeners behind her. (Galsworthy)30. 1 am afraid I addressed __ wrong person. (Collins)31. They must have had very fair notions of __ artistic and __ beautiful. (Jerome K. Jerome)32. __ rich think they can buy anything. (Snow)33. __ room has three doors; one on __ same side as __ fireplace, near — corner, leading to __ best bedroom. (Shaw)34. My thousand __ year is not merely. __. matter of dirty banknotes and jaundicedguineas... but, it may be, health to __ drooping, strength to __ weak, consolation to __ sad. (Ch. Bronte)35. Thank you, Stephen: I knew you would give me __ right advice. (Shaw)36. Sometimes... visitors rang __ wrong bell. (Bennett)37. My family came from hereabouts some generations back. I just wanted to have — look at __ place, and ask you __ question or two. (Galsworthy)38. __ woman will only be "the equal of __ man when she earns her living in __ same way that he does. (Maugham)39. He arrived half __ hour before dinner time, and went up to __ schoolroom at __ top of __ house, to see __ children. (Galsworthy)40. You will see him __ steady character yet. I am sure of it. There is something in. __ very expression of his face that tells me so. (Marryat)41. Far away in __ little street there is __ poor house. One of __ windows is open and through it I can see __ woman seated at __ table. She is __ seamstress. (Wilde)42. _ man who entered was short and broad. He had black hair, and was wearing __ grey flannel trousers with __ red woollen shirt, open at __ neck, whose collar he carried outside __ lapels of his dark tweed jacket. (Clark)43. Believe me, when __ woman really makes up her mind to marry __ man nothing on God's earth can save him. (Maugham)44. I stopped,., still uncertain of myself and whether I was saying. __ right thing. (Du Maurier)45, Then it was night and he was awake, standing in __ street, looking up at __ dark windows of __ place where he lived. __ front door was locked and there was no one in __ house. (Saroyan)46. I believe I can tell __ very.moment I began to love him. (Galsworthy)47. We are told that __ heart of __ man is deceitful above all __ things, and desperately wicked. (Shaw)48. "I must do it," said Adam; "it's __ right thing." (Eliot)49. Mr. Boythorn lived in __ pretty house with __ lawn in front, __ bright flower garden at __ side and __ kitchen-garden in __ rear, enclosed with __ wall. __ house was __ real old house. (Dickens)50 __ bartender was __ pale little man in __ vest and apron, with __ pale, hairy arms and __ long, nervous nose. (/. Shaw)51. __ face to __.face, he was as warm and easy-natured as he had ever been. (Snow)52. 1 had not yet learnt how contradictory is human nature; I did not know how much pose there is in __ sincere, how much baseness in _ noble, or how much goodness in __ reprobate. 10 (Maugham)53. During __ country house parties one day is very like another. __ men put on __ same kind of variegated tie, eat __ same breakfast, tap __ same barometer, smoke __ same pipes and kill __ same birds. (Galsworthy)54. Almost at. very moment when r,he had returned Aileen had appeared. (Dreiser) 55. __ old man quitted __ house secretly at __ same hour as before. (Dickens)56. We are told that __ wicked shall be punished. (Shaw)57. __ arm in __ arm we walked on, sometimes stumbling over __ hump of earth or catching our feet in __ rabbit-holes. (Hansford lohnson) 58. Clare was __ most vivid member of __ family. She had dark fine shingled hair and __ pale expressive face, of which __ lips were slightly brightened. __ eyes were brown, with __ straight and eager glance, __ brow low and very white. Her expression was old for __ girl of twenty, being calm and yet adventurous. (Galsworthy)59. When I was __ child my mother used to make __ cakes and send me out with them as __ presents to __ neighbours. And. __ neighbours would give us __ presents too, and not only at Christmas time. (Murdoch)60. I wrote to __ Managing Editor that this was __ wrong moment to change their correspondent. (Greene)